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Cardiovascular disease involves the improper functioning of heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases such as angina and myocardial infarction (which is also known as a heart attack). Other cardiovascular diseases are stroke, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, peripheral artery disease and venous thrombosis. It is expected that 90% of cardiovascular disease is avoidable. Prevention of atherosclerosis is by decreasing risk factors through proper diet, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and restrictive alcohol intake. Treating high blood pressure and diabetes is also beneficial.
Cardiac electrophysiology is the science deals with elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to Programmed Electrical Stimulation (PES). These studies are performed to assess complex arrhythmias, elucidate symptoms, evaluate abnormal electrocardiograms, assess risk of developing arrhythmias in the future, and design treatment. These procedures mainly include therapeutic methods (typically radiofrequency ablation, or cryoablation) in addition to diagnostic and prognostic procedures. Other therapeutic modalities employed in this field include antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantation of pacemakers and Automatic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (AICD).
A clinical cardiologist analyses and treats the disorder that affects the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and the blood vessels. Medications and other non-surgical procedures to cure and prevent the heart attacks, coronary artery diseases and other similar conditions. It includes Cardiovascular Medicine, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Application of Cardiac Progenitor Cells and many more to be discussed in international congress of cardiology. Many of the universities are working on Clinical Cardiology.
Vascular heart diseases are any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and mitral valves on the left and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right). These conditions occur mostly as a result of aging. Most people are in their late 50s when diagnosed, and more than one in ten people over 75 have it.
Interventional cardiology deals especially with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. Andreas Gruentzig is considered the father of interventional cardiology after the enlargement of angioplasty by interventional radiologist Charles Dotter.
A large number of procedures can be accomplished on the heart by catheterization. This is most commonly method which is involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery (but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein) and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization. The radial artery also be used for cannulation; this approach deals with several advantages, including the accessibility of the artery in most patients, the easy control of bleeding even in anticoagulated patients, the enrichment of comfort because patients are capable of sitting up and walking immediately following the procedure, and the near absence of clinically significant sequelae in patients with a normal Allen test.
Echocardiography is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of your heart. The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working. Echo also can pinpoint areas of heart muscle that aren't contracting and working because of poor blood flow or injury from a previous heart attack. A type of echo called Doppler ultrasound shows how well blood flows through your heart's chambers and valves.
Echo can detect possible blood clots inside the heart, fluid buildup in the pericardium, and problems with the aorta. The aorta is the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from your heart to your body. Doctors also use echo to detect heart problems in infants and children.
Cardiac surgery is generally performed on heart or great vessels . Frequently, it is done to treat The complications of ischemic heart disease, correct congenital heart disease, or treat Valvular heart disease from various causes including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis are generally treated by this method.. The procedures implemented in cardiac surgery are: Aortic Aneurysms & Dissections, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Left Ventricular Assist Device and Heart Transplantation, Mitral Valve Surgery and Open-Heart Surgery etc.
Pediatric Cardiology is used for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, performing diagnostic processes such as echocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations and electrophysiology studies. The growing number of neonates with congenital heart defects raised to the neonatal intensive care unit reflects the increasing awareness that the defects may be present. Chest radiography and ECG hardly support in the neonatal analysis. Congestive heart failure in the fetus, or hydrops, can be detected by performing fetal echocardiography. Many of the pediatric heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus interruption, pericardial window, diaphragm placation, thoracic duct ligation, ligation of collateral vessels have been repaired using pediatric interventional cardiology. The nursing and care techniques also used for pediatric cardiac patients also plays an important role for the treatment of pediatric cardiac patients.
Obesity raises the risk for heart disease and stroke. But it harms more than just the heart and blood vessel system. It is also a major reason of gallstones, osteoarthritis and respiratory problems. Obesity is closely intertwined with numerous health conditions that underlie cardiovascular disease with high blood pressure, diabetes, and irregular blood cholesterol. In addition, weight increase is a frequent result of heart-damaging lifestyle choices such as deficiency of exercise and a fat-laden diet.
Obesity also can lead to heart failure. This is a serious situation in which your heart can't pump enough blood to encounter your body's needs. Having diabetes or pre diabetes puts one at increased risk for heart disease and stroke. One can decreased its risk by possession the blood glucose (also called blood sugar), blood pressure, and blood cholesterol close to the recommended target numbers—the levels suggested by diabetes experts for good health. Stroke and coronary heart disease can be caused by the same problem – atherosclerosis.
People who have severe heart failure and irregular heartbeats are candidates for implantable defibrillators. These procedures are surgically placed and deliver pacing, or an electric counter shock, to the heart when a life-threatening abnormal rhythm is detected. People by heart failure develop irregular conduction of the heart’s electrical system that changes how efficiently the heart beats. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which is also known as biventricular pacing, may be needed.
The left ventricle is the large, muscular chamber of the heart that pumps blood out to the body. A left ventricular assist device is a battery-operated, mechanical pump-type device that's surgically implanted. Heart failure can develop when blockages in the coronary arteries restrict the blood supply to the heart muscle. Removal of these blockages can improve overall heart function, which may recover or resolve heart failure symptoms. Percutaneous coronary intervention is one type of procedure to reopen blocked vessels. Coronary artery bypass surgery reroutes the blood supply around a blocked section of the artery. During this procedure, surgeons remove strong blood vessels from another part of the body, such as a leg or the chest wall. They then surgically attach the vessels to the diseased artery in such a way that the blood can flow around the blocked section.
Cardiology is a branch of medical science that deals with disorders of the heart. Heart is an important muscular organ in humans and animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The drugs used to treat other disorders in body show a great impact on heart causing various side effects. Hence case reports on cardiac disorders and diseases have a great value that help in advancing and development of various treatment strategies. World Cardiology 2018 will help in networking, partnering between professionals and academicians to share new ideas and advancements in reducing heart failure and heart diseases. The event is designed to build good relations bringing the researchers and companies together. Cardiology conferences, cardiology events, cardiologist meetings are very important for the common people to be aware new innovations and advancements in the field of cardiology.
Cardiology conferences comprises the current research in cardiology contains the new innovative methods that are coming in cardiology related field. In this subtopic we have Statin therapy, Thrombolytic therapy and Cardiac rehabilitation. There are so many associations and societies and the main association for Interventional cardiology is located in USA. Many universities are working on Current Research in Cardiology. Hospitals and Companies around USA are associated with Cardiology. Some research topics in cardiology includes Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Research, Myocardial and Heart Failure Research, The Vital Basis of Excitability in the Heart, Genomic Basis for Inherited Cardiovascular Disease, Proteomic Analysis of Heart Disease, Mechanisms of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodelling etc.
Cardiac regeneration is a broad effort that objectives to repair irretrievably injured heart tissue with cutting-edge science, including stem cell and cell-free therapy. Reparative tools have been engineered to renovate damaged heart tissue and function by the body's natural ability to regenerate. Working together, patients and providers are finding regenerative solutions that restore, renew and recycle patients' own reparative capacity.
Nuclear cardiology studies the use of noninvasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used for the detection and management of coronary artery disease, viability studies to assess for the extent of myocardial infarction and radionuclide cineangiograms to evaluate heart function.
Geriatric cardiology or Cardiogeriatrics is the branch of cardiology that deals with the cardiovascular disorders in elderly people. The field of geriatric cardiology reflects the evolving medical approaches tailored to address the needs of the growing population of oldest old with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease (including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, arrhythmias (as atrial fibrillation) and others are common and are a major cause of mortality in elderly people. Vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease cause significant morbidity and mortality in aged people.
Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It’s a disease that can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death. Blood pressure can be defined as the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels and the pressure depends on the work being done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels. Medical guidelines define hypertension as a blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) . Around 85 million people in the United States are suffering from high blood pressure. Hypertensionand heart disease are the leading global health concerns. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the growth of the processed food industry has impacted the amount of salt in diets worldwide, and that plays a role in hypertension.
Heart failure commonly known as chronic heart failure (CHF), occurs due to the inability of the heart to pump blood properly in order to meet the body requirements. Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, Valvular heart disease, excess consumption of alcohol, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause. Heart failure is of two types: heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunctionand heart failure with normal ejection fraction. All the cardiology events this year will help in networking, B2B partnering between professionals and academicians working in the field of cardiology. We have handled many successful cardiology events and cardiology conferences and help to build good relations bringing the researchers and companies together. Cardiology conferences, cardiologist meetings and cardiology events are very important for the common people to be aware of the most important part of human body.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that deals with the patients who are suffering from various conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help to treat conditions such as unstable angina, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the guidance of a cardiologist. Cardiac nurses perform postoperative care on a surgical unit, cardiac monitoring, stress test evaluations, vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac nurses work in many different environments, including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, operating theatres, intensive care units (ICU), cardiac rehabilitation centers, cardiac surgery wards, clinical research, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.
Men and women are very different when it comes to matters of the heart, and that’s just as true for matters of heart health. While heart disease is on the decline among men, it is continuously rising among women. It’s the number one killer of women over 35 worldwide, accounting for more deaths every year than all cancers combined. Women with diabetes generally have higher CVD mortality rates than men with diabetes. Women engaged in physical activity for less than an hour per week have 1.48 times the risk of developing coronary heart disease, comparing to the women who do more than three hours of physical activity per week. Go Red for Women is a major international awareness campaign that is dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and control of heart disease and stroke in women.
Cardiovascular agents are cardiac medicines that are used to treat medical conditions associated with the heart or the circulatory system (blood vessels), such as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, high or low blood pressure, blood clots, high cholesterol, heart failure and stroke. There are many different classes of drugs that come under the general term cardiovascular agent. Some work directly on the blood vessels surrounding the heart, reducing how much force the heart has to pump against the wall. Others lower cholesterol levels and help reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaques which cause narrowing of blood vessels. Some work for the kidneys to increase fluid and salt loss or improve blood flow through the kidneys. The type of cardiovascular disease the person has determines which class of cardiovascular agent to use.
Congenital heart disease is one or more abnormalities in the heart's structure at birth. It mostly effects the walls, valves,or blood vessels of the heart. There are different types of conginital heart defects, some are serious and may need several surgeries and treatments.
The evaluation of individuals with valvular heart disease who are or wish to become pregnant is a problematic issue. Issues that have to be addressed include the risks in pregnancy to the mother and the increasing fetus by the presence of maternal valvular heart disease as an intercurrent disease in pregnancy. Common physiological variations during pregnancy require, on average, a 50% growth in circulating blood volume that is supplemented by an increase in cardiac output that usually peaks between the mid portion of the second and third trimesters
The enlarged cardiac output is due to an increase in the stroke size, and a minor increase in heart rate, averaging 10 to 20 beats per minute. Additionally uterine circulation and endogenous hormones cause systemic vascular resistance to reduction and a disproportionately lowering of diastolic blood pressure causes a catholic pulse pressure. Inferior vena caval obstruction from a gravid uterus in the prone position can result in an abrupt decrease in cardiac preload, which leads to hypotension with weakness and light headedness. During labor and delivery cardiac outputrises more in part due to the related anxiety and pain, as well as due to uterine reductions which will cause an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Cardiothoracic surgery involves the surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax- generally the heart and lungs. The Cardiothoracic surgeons or Cardiac surgeons are the ones who are specialized in cardiology from general surgery. Cardiac procedures are lengthy and carry a definite risk of death. Inorder to carry a successful surgery it requires support from advanced forms of technology developments and intensive therapy.
There are many cardiovascular risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Some risk factors like family history cannot be modified, but other risk factors such as high blood pressure, can be modified with treatment. Once can necessarily develop cardiovascular disease if he/she have a risk factor. More the risk factors greater the likelihood to have the heart disease, unless one takes action to modify the risk factors and works to prevent them compromising the heart health.